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Some verb morphology features of Tadaksahak, or Berber or Songhay, this is the question

Languages: Tadaksahak; Tamasheq

Having been described as "langue mixte" (Lacroix 1971), this language presents features of Songhay and Berber languages. The observations discussed in this paper deal with the way voice changes are handled. In particular, it shows how the causative is formed. The causative morpheme S(V)- is of Berber origin and prefixed to the verb root as in Berber languages, whereas Songhay suffixes the causative morpheme that is of a very different form (-andi). But only verb roots that are also etymologically from Berber can take the morpheme in Tadaksahak. All roots that are cognates with Songhay are replaced with a Berber root with the same meaning, when causativized, changed to passive voice, or made reflexive or reciprocal.

An appendix to the paper lists examples of both intransitive and transitive verbs using suppletion of the root when changed to causative and passive voice.

Subject: Grammar

Relative clauses in Tadaksahak

Languages: Tadaksahak

Three distinct relativization strategies are used in Tadaksahak: a relative pronoun strategy, a gap strategy, and one that uses the morpheme sa (hereafter, the sa-strategy). One parameter that distinguishes these strategies is whether the relative clause is restrictive (relative pronoun and gap strategies) or nonrestrictive (sa-strategy); this difference is reviewed in section 1. The parameter that usually distinguishes the two restrictive strategies is whether the referent of the head noun is definite (relative pronoun strategy-sec. 3.1) or indefinite (gap strategy-sec. 3.2). Section 4 is devoted to the sa-strategy. The paper also discusses which grammatical relations can be relativized by each strategy (sec. 2), and some motivations for left-dislocating nominal constituents that contain relative clauses (sec. 5).

Subject: Grammar

Traces d'une culture commune à l'Afrique sub-saharienne dans les valeurs des Jô du Mali et du Burkina Faso

Authors: Hochstetler; Susan
Languages: Jowulu

Ernst R. Wendland (1990) a identifié sept principes organisateurs dans la vie des Chewa et des Tonga au Malawi et en Zambie. Ces thèmes culturels semblent également être une bonne description des principes à l’origine des coutumes traditionnelles chez les Jô du Mali et du Burkina Faso, ce qui conforte l’idée qu’il existe une culture commune à l’Afrique sub-saharienne. Nous allons voir dans ce mémoire des manifestations de ces principes dans la société jô (notamment dans les coutumes de mariage).

Ernst R. Wendland (1990) has identified seven organizing principles in the life of the Chewa and Tonga peoples in Malawi and Zambia. These cultural themes seem also to describe well the foundations of the values that motivate the traditional customs of the Jô people in Mali and Burkina Faso, giving support to the idea of a common culture throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Manifestations of these principles in Jô society (the customs surrounding marriage in particular) are examined in this report.

Subject: Anthropology